About Ethereum POS

Ethereum Proof-of-Stake (POS) is a consensus mechanism on the Ethereum blockchain that replaces the original Ethereum Proof-of-Work (POW) mechanism used to verify transactions and create new blocks. Ethereum POS requires validating nodes to stake a certain amount of Ether (ETH) as collateral to ensure their honesty and accountability and receive rewards in the network.

The implementation of Ethereum POS consists of two phases:

the Beacon Chain and Shard Chains. The Beacon Chain is the first phase of Ethereum POS and was launched in December 2020. The Beacon Chain is responsible for validating node stakes and distributing rewards, and it is the core of Ethereum POS. In the Beacon Chain, validators are required to stake 32 ETH to participate in transaction validation and block creation, and to follow network rules and protocols. Validator rewards consist of block rewards and transaction fees, which are paid in ETH.
Shard Chains are the second phase of Ethereum POS and will be a multi-chain structure composed of multiple Shard Chains, with each Shard Chain responsible for processing transactions and status for a blockchain. This will greatly improve Ethereum's transaction processing capabilities and scalability, allowing for more concurrent transactions. The launch of Shard Chains is expected around 2022.

Compared to the previous Proof-of-Work mechanism, Ethereum POS has the following advantages:

Higher energy efficiency. Ethereum POS consumes less energy than the previous Proof-of-Work mechanism because it does not require large amounts of computation to compete for block production.
Higher security. Ethereum POS attackers need to control a large amount of collateral to attack the network, which is often expensive and impractical, making it more secure than the previous Proof-of-Work mechanism.
Lower entry threshold. Ethereum POS validators only need to hold a certain amount of ETH to participate in transaction validation and block creation, making it easier to participate than the previous Proof-of-Work mechanism.

In Ethereum POS staking, there are two common staking methods: collaborative staking and self-custody staking.

Collaborative staking refers to different users combining their staked ETH to form a joint validator node to jointly validate transactions and create blocks and share validation rewards. This staking method can reduce the threshold for staking ETH, increase staking returns, but requires trusting others to manage the node.
Self-custody staking refers to a single validator node staking with its own ETH, independently validating transactions and creating blocks and receiving validation rewards. This staking method mainly emphasizes the user holding and controlling the staked ETH and managing the private key extraction themselves to ensure fund security and control.
Both staking methods need to meet Ethereum POS staking requirements, including staking a certain amount of ETH as collateral, following network rules and protocols, etc. When choosing a staking method, factors to consider include the amount of staked ETH, risk tolerance, trustworthiness, and the need for fund security and control.